“Bogwood also known as abonos and morta – the wood from trees which have been buried in peat or bogs for at least several hundred years. The wood is stained charcoal or navy-black by tannins dissolved in the acidic water. The environmental conditions, in which the bogwood has been preserved till our time, have a huge impact on the quality and colour of the wood. Especially the periodic change of the groundwater level, which recurrently uncovers and overflows the wood, has a negative influence on the bogwood as it leads to rapid decay and consequently to the decrease of mechanical properties. The bogwood which was buried in peat and bogs, under the stable moisture content survived to our times in a very good condition despite the decay of bark and alburnum. The crucial process occurring in the bogwood, next to oxidation, is the sedimentation and crystallization of mineral substances on the cell wall. This causes the increase in density, however, from the practical standpoint the mechanical working is constricted. The bogwood, despite its advantages, has a major flaw – strong crack sensitivity during the process of timber drying. This process needs to be much slower in bogwood’s case when compared to present-day trees. The bogwood can be found across almost the whole of Europe, nevertheless, its biggest concentration lies in the river basins of Central and South Europe. In Poland, Dębica and Szprotawa are areas that are most rich in bogwood. The biggest piece of bogwood is two meters in diameter and is exhibited in the Museum of Agates and Petrified Trees in Dąbrowa Tarnowska. Polish legislation establishes that the bogwood which is buried in peat or bogs is the property of the State Treasury” – Wikipedia.
Radiocarbon dating – the method used for determining the age of objects. It is based on measurement of the proportions between the radioactive isotope of carbon (14C) and the stable isotopes of carbon (12C and 13C). This method was developed by Willard Libby and his co-workers in 1949 and nowadays many laboratories, including Polish ones, use it. Libby received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in 1960.
The extraction of bogwood is shown in the following gallery.
Each cross has an individual certificate
The certificate applies to the cross.A become made of a randomly chosen raw material that can come from a period 1200-9600 years.